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Word Description
Pacific Islander See "Asian/Pacific Islander."
Package bargaining A negotiating technique whereby contract proposals are grouped into a “package” usually offering substantial concessions by one party, in exchange for substantial gains.
Paid leave bank A benefit program granting employees a bank consisting of a specific number of paid days that can be used for absences related to sickness, vacation or personal reasons.
Paid time off (PTO) A benefit program granting employees a specific number of vacation or personal days off which that are paid by the employer. The number of days is generally based on the employer’s policy for accrual of paid time off.
Paired comparison A form of rating, in which the rater compares, one by one, the performance of each member in a group with the performance of every other member in the group.
Paper locals A term used to describe a local union that has no members.
Parental leave A benefit designed to provide employees with approved paid or unpaid time off following the birth or adoption of a child or to care for a dependent.
Pareto chart A bar graph used to rank in order of importance information such as causes or reasons for specific problems, so that measures for process improvement can be established.
Parity A term used in the public sector to describe the ratio an employer maintains between the salaries for specific jobs.
Parole evidence A guideline governing the admission of evidence during an arbitration hearing.
Part-time employee An individual who continually works less than 40 hours per week (standard workweek hours are based on individual employer policy, therefore, a 40-hour workweek is only a guideline; this number could be higher or lower).
Partial disability An illness or injury that prevents an individual from performing one or more functions of his or her job.
Participative management A management style, developed by Motorola, that involves employees in the decision-making process.
Particularized need The Authority’s analytical approach in dealing with union requests for information under title 5, United States Code, section 7114(b)(4).
Partnership A form of employee participation established pursuant to Executive Order 12871 in which the parties are expected to deal with matters relating to improving the performance of the agency in a non-adversarial, non-litigious manner.
Past practice A consistent action or behavior with respect to an issue that over time employees, the union and the employer have come to recognize the standard.
Paternity leave A benefit designed to provide fathers of newborn children with paid or unpaid time off from work following the birth of the child.
Pattern bargaining A form of negotiation in which the terms reached in a particular company’s settlement agreement are closely adopted by other companies.
Pattern or Practice Discrimination Employer actions constituting a pattern of conduct resulting in discriminatory treatment toward the members of a class. Pattern or practice discrimination generally is demonstrated in large measure through statistical evidence, and can be proven under either the disparate treatment or disparate impact model.
Pay adjustment Any change made to the pay rate of an employee, such as an increase or decrease to the rate of pay.
Pay compression A situation occurring when only a small difference in pay exists between employees, regardless of their knowledge, skills, abilities or experience. Oftentimes, it is the result of a market-rate for a given job surpassing the increases historically awarded to long-term employees.
Pay grades A method used to group jobs together that have approximately the same relative internal worth and are paid at the same rate.
Pay range Associated with pay grades, the range sets the upper and lower compensation boundaries for jobs within that range.
Pay structure A structure of job grades and pay ranges established within an organization. May be expressed as job grades or job evaluation points.
Payback agreement An agreement between an employer and an employee used primarily for relocated employees, stating that an employee will not voluntarily terminate his or her employment with the organization for a specified duration of time, effective from the date of relocation. Failure to abide by the terms of the agreement results in the employee being responsible for paying back a portion of any and all costs incurred by the employer on the employee’s behalf. Also used by employers that pay for expensive job-related or professional development training or educational courses.
Payroll records Documentation created and maintained by the employer, which contains information regarding hours worked, salaries, wages, commissions, bonuses, vacation/sick pay, contributions to qualified health and pension plans, net pay and deductions for all employees on the employer’s payroll for the year.
Peer appraisal A performance appraisal strategy whereby an employee is reviewed by his or her peers who have sufficient opportunity to examine the individual’s job performance.
Pension plan An employer benefit plan funded through insurance, a trust, general assets or other separately maintained funds designed to provide employees with a monthly income benefit upon retirement.
Perceived disability A person who does not meet the definition of a disabled individual in accordance with the Americans With Disabilities Act but is regarded by his or her employer as having a mental or physical disability .
Performance appraisal A periodic review and evaluation of an individual's job performance.
Performance counseling The process of improving employee performance and productivity by providing the employee with feedback regarding areas where he or she is doing well and areas that may require improvement.
Performance improvement plan A plan implemented by a manager or supervisor that is designed to provide employees with constructive feedback, facilitate discussions between an employee and his or her supervisor regarding performance-related issues, and outline specific areas of performance requiring improvement.
Performance management The process of maintaining or improving employee job performance through the use of performance assessment tools, coaching and counseling as well as providing continuous feedback.
Performance monitoring The practice of monitoring employees while they perform their jobs through the use of surveillance cameras, telephone or computer monitoring.
Performance standards The tasks, functions or behavioral requirements established by the employer as goals to be accomplished by an employee.
Performance-based pay A variable pay strategy that pays employees based on their individual performance and contributions, rather than the value of the job they are performing.
Permanent injunction A court-issued order requiring a party to either do or refrain from doing a certain act.
Permanent replacements Individuals hired to permanently replace an employee engaged in a strike. At the end of the strike, permanent replacements are not taken off the job but rather continue to work. Returning striker are recalled to work as vacancies for which they are qualified, are created due to attrition, growth, or other means. Unions refer to all replacement employees as “scabs.”
Permanent umpire An arbitrator who has been chosen by both management and the union to serve for a specified period of time or the duration of the contract.
Permissive subject of bargaining Subjects that are not mandatory nor illegal. These subjects may be proposed in the negotiations, but neither side may insist that they be included in the agreement (another way of stating this is to say the other side has no obligation even to discuss them if they do not wish to). Included as permissive topics are: interest arbitration, benefits for non-employees (such as retirees), changes in the composition of the certified or recognized bargaining unit, selection of bargaining representative, internal union affairs, inclusion of supervisors, settlement of an unfair labor practice charge, etc.
Personal days A benefit designed to provide employees with an allotment of paid days off in addition to holidays, sick days or vacation days, which they can use to attend to personal matters.
Personal protective equipment Clothing and other work accessories (i.e., safety glasses, hearing protection, etc.) designed to create a barrier against potential workplace hazards.
Personality test A test instrument usually involving a standardized series of questions that are used to evaluate an individual’s personality characteristics.
Personnel records All information pertaining to individual employees, which is collected and maintained by the employer and is essential to the employer for handling various employment-related matters.
Phased retirement A work schedule arrangement that allows employees to gradually reduce their full-time hours over a period of time.
Phone banking Refers to the practice of telephoning large numbers of members to inform them of a union policy or action or to gather information.
Phone tree Refers to the network of volunteer members in which one member calls a list of members, each of whom calls another list of members, so on so forth.
Physical & Mental Job Qualification Requirements Physical and mental standards that an employer requires a person performing or applying for a job to meet.
Physical ability test A test instrument used to determine an individual’s ability to perform the functions or tasks of a job where physical strength or endurance is required.
Physical examination A medical examination performed by a company physician or an independent physician to ascertain whether or not an individual is able to perform the physical requirements of a particular job.
Picketing Generally, activity at the location of a labor dispute that involves patrolling and the carrying of placards. This definition has been expanded to include activities where persons did not carry signs but rather had signs posted nearby and to situations where persons were not sitting in their cars keeping warm. A key element is that a “signal” is sent to others whether the substance of the dispute is known or not and regardless of whether the message on the placards is read. Generally, hand billing without the carrying of placards or patrolling is not “picketing” and is protected by the First Amendment of the Constitution.
Piece rate A per-piece rate system that pays employees based on the number of pieces produced.
Pink slip A written or verbal notice given to employees who are being terminated or laid-off.
Placement In this Manual, placement is often used in the context of the selection or assignment of individuals in a particular job.
Placement goals Other eligible veterans are those individuals who served on active duty in the U.S. military, ground, naval or air service during a war or in a campaign or expedition for which a campaign badge has been authorized.
Plan administrator An individual or plan sponsor designated by the instrument under which the plan is operated to be responsible for the administration of pension and welfare benefit plans.
Policy A written statement that reflects the employer’s standards and objectives relating to various employee activities and employment-related matters.
Policy/procedures manual A detailed written document designed to assist managers and supervisors in carrying out their day-to-day responsibilities by acquainting them with all of the organization's policies and the procedures required to implement those policies.
Portable pension plan A pension plan designed to allow employees the ability to transfer accrued pension benefit credits earned with one employer to another.
Portal-to-Portal pay Compensation for all expenses incurred while traveling from door to door. Portal-to-portal pay is used in business organizations for business-related purposes, such as business travel where all expenses including transportation are covered.
Position control A workforce planning tool that imposes certain rules or restrictions on the creation, and filling of positions as a means to manage and control the costs associated with any given position within the organization.
Positive discipline A disciplinary strategy geared toward reducing and improving an individual’s unfavorable behavior or conduct by rewarding positive behavior rather than focusing on and punishing negative behavior.
Positive reinforcement The process of acknowledging specific behaviors with positive feedback, such as a smile, praise or reward.
Post- tax contributions Contributions made to a benefit plan that are subject to applicable state or federal tax withholding requirements.
Post-accident testing The process of testing an employee involved in a workplace accident for the presence of drugs or alcohol.
Poverty index A measurement that establishes the minimum income required to provide an adequate standard of living.
Practitioner An individual who practices a learned profession.
Pre-employment Medical Examination An evaluation of the health status of an applicant for employment.
Pre-employment testing The practice of issuing tests to potential employees on a pre-employment basis in order to determine an applicant’s suitability for a certain position. These tests may include, but are not limited to, drug and alcohol tests, medical examinations, skills tests, physical agility tests, honesty/integrity tests or personality tests.
Pre-tax contributions Contributions made to a benefit plan that are exempt from all applicable state or federal tax withholding requirements.
Predetermination Notice A letter in which OFCCP notifies the contractor of its preliminary finding that the contractor has engaged in a pattern or practice of discrimination. The Notice states the basis for the preliminary findings and offers the contractor the opportunity to respond.
Predictive validity Used in the test validation process to measure the relationship between test scores and actual job performance.
Preexisting condition Any condition for which a person is currently receiving treatment, has been advised to receive treatment or for which a prudent person would seek treatment.
Preferential hiring A hiring tactic in which employers agree that when hiring new employees, they will give preferential treatment to union members.
Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) of 1978 An amendment to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibiting discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth or related medical conditions, requiring pregnancy or related conditions to be treated in the same manner as any other temporary disability.
Premium only plan (POP) Considered to be the most basic type of Section 125 plan, a POP is a benefit plan that is designed to allow employees to elect to make premium contributions on either a pre-tax or post-tax basis.
Premium pay dditional compensation paid for work performed outside of regularly scheduled work hours.
Prepaid group legal plan A benefit plan that provides employees, their spouses or dependents with assistance in obtaining legal services, which have been prepaid in whole or in part by the employer.
Prerequisites A form of incentives generally given to executive employees granting them certain privileges or special consideration, such as memberships in clubs, physical fitness programs, financial counseling, etc.
Prescription drug benefits Typically a provision included in a group health plan designed to provide covered employees and their dependents with payment assistance for medically prescribed drugs.
Prevailing wage A rate of pay determined by the U.S. Department of Labor based upon the geographic area for a given class of labor and type of project.
Prima Facie Case A legal term that refers to a case sufficient on its face to prevail in the absence of contradictory evidence.
Primary boycott Used by employees and their union to gain certain concessions from an employer, a boycott is an organized refusal by employees and their labor union to deal with the employer.
Privacy Refers to information about an employee which he or she regards as personal or private (i.e., medical information, financial data, etc.) and the right of that individual to not have such information shared with others.
Private letter ruling A formal document issued by the Internal Revenue Service announcing tax decisions or changes.
Pro forma The term pro forma comes from the Latin phrase meaning, "as a matter of form". The term is very broad and its meaning depends on the context in which it is being used. Basically it is a term used to describe the presentation of data, usually financial statements, where the data reflects information as if the state of the world were different from that which is in fact the case.
Probation Used as a form of discipline, it is a specified period of time during which an individual’s performance or conduct is closely monitored.
Probationary period A specified period of time (typically 30-90 days) where a newly hired, promoted or transferred employee’s job performance is evaluated. Primarily used by supervisors to closely observe an employee’s work, help the employee adjust to the position and reject any employee whose performance does not meet required standards.
Problem Areas Aspects of the contractor's employment decisions, policies, or practices that appear to raise questions regarding the contractor's compliance with the Executive Order, Section 503 or 38 U.S.C. �4212.
Process reengineering The process of improving business practices or methods by creating and implementing new processes or making changes to existing processes.
Production worker An employee who is directly involved with the manufacture of a particular product.
Productivity The measurement of output to input used to gauge production efficiency.
Productivity bargaining A collective bargaining agreement that provides employees with increases based on the employers realized productivity gains.
Professional employee An employee who has undergone advanced or specialized training in a particular field of learning and whose work is predominantly intellectual in nature.
Professional Employer Organization (PEO) An organization that enters into a join-employment relationship with an employer, by leasing employees to the employer, allowing the PEO to share and manage many employer-related responsibilities and liabilities. Employers outsource their human resource functions, such employee benefits, compensation and payroll administration, workers’ compensation and employment taxes.
Profit sharing A qualified retirement plan established and maintained by an employer which enables employees and their beneficiaries to participate in the profits of the employer's business.
Profit sharing plan A qualified retirement plan established and maintained by an employer which enables employees and their beneficiaries to participate in the profits of the employer's business.
Progression Line Charts Written listings of a contractor's line of progression. See "Line of Progression."
Progressive discipline A form of discipline whereby increasingly harsher penalties are awarded each time an employee is disciplined for the same or a different performance infraction or policy or work-rule violation. Generally, the sequence is an oral warning to written warnings to suspension and finally termination.
Prohibited Factor A factor prohibited by law from being used in making employment decisions. Under Executive Order 11246, as amended, the prohibited factors are race, color, religion, sex and national origin. Under Section 503, the prohibited factor is handicap; under 38 U.S.C. �4212, it is status as a special disabled or Vietnam era veteran.
Promotable Minorities and Women Minorities and women who are qualified and eligible for promotion based upon valid selection criteria.
Promotable or Transferable In the context of developing data for availability, those employees who are currently employed in a job group or groups that serve or could serve as a source from which selections are or could be made for other job groups.
Promotion Any personnel action resulting in movement to a position affording higher pay and/or greater rank, and/or requiring greater skill or responsibility, or the opportunity to attain such.
Proof of Discrimination "Proofs" of discrimination are the factual formulations which show that discrimination under a particular theory exists. These formulations describe the kinds of facts needed to show a nexus between a particular adverse action or result and a particular prohibited factor. Proof requires evidence; see "Anecdotal Evidence," "Comparative Evidence," and "Statistical Evidence."
Proprietary information Information associated with a company's products, business or activities, including such items as financial data; trade secrets; product research and development; product designs; marketing plans or techniques; computer programs; processes; and know-how that has been clearly identified and communicated by the company as proprietary, a trade secret or confidential.
Protected concerted activities The basic activity protected by the NLRA. Activities by more than one person (concerted, although there are cases where the NLRB or courts have found that the activities of one person are “deemed” to be concerted) for the purposes of collective bargaining or other mutual aid or protection (protected activities). Activities that are generally protected include engaging in work stoppages, honoring picket lines, filing or processing grievances, safety related protests, protests of employment discrimination, appeals to regulatory agencies or courts (it is not necessary that the basis of the protest be meritorious). Discipline and/or discharge of employee(s) for participation in such activities may b a violation of the NLRB. Activities that are not protected include, but are not limited to, sit down strikes, some breaches in confidentiality, some forms of disloyalty.
Protected characteristics Legal terminology referring to areas protected by federal or state statutes.
Protected class A legal term describing certain groups, such as women, older and disabled individuals, Vietnam-era veterans and minorities.
Psychological test A written, visual or verbal assessment administered to determine cognitive and emotional skills.
Public employment relations board or commission (PERB or PERC) An administrative agency that is responsible for providing impartial, efficient and expert resolution of labor-management disputes and interpretation of state labor laws for public employers.